Front Matter

Front Matter

Neil Patterson, Marie Montanjees, Colleen Cardillo, and John Motala
Published Date:
September 2004
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    Foreign Direct Investment Trends, Data Availability, Concepts, and Recording Practices

    Neil Patterson Marie Montanjees John Motala Colleen Cardillo

    September 2004

    © 2004 International Monetary Fund

    Cataloging-in-Publication Data

    Foreign direct investment : trends, data availability, concepts, and recording practices / Neil K. Patterson … [et al.] — Washington, D.C. : International Monetary Fund, 2004.

    p. cm.

    Includes bibliographical references. ISBN 1-58906-347-3

    1. Investments, Foreign — Statistical methods. I. Patterson, Neil K. II. International Monetary Fund. HG4538.F56 2004

    Price: $25.00

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    The following conventions are used in this report:

    • … to indicate that data are not available;

    • — to indicate that the figure is zero or less than half the final digit shown, or that the item does not exist;

    • – between years or months (for example, 1991–92 or January–June) to indicate the years or months covered, including the beginning and ending years or months;

    • / between years or months (for example, 1991/92) to indicate a fiscal or financial year.

    “Billion” means a thousand million; “trillion” means a thousand billion.

    Minor discrepancies between constituent figures and totals are due to rounding.

    As used in this report, the term “country” does not in all cases refer to a territorial entity that is a state as understood by international law and practice. As used here, the term also covers some territorial entities that are not states but for which statistical data are maintained on a separate and independent basis.


    The increasing importance of multinational enterprises in the global economy has stimulated interest in improving the availability, the accuracy, and the comparability of foreign direct investment (FDI) statistics among policymakers, analysts, and statisticians.

    Foreign Direct Investment: Trends, Data Availability, Concepts, and Recording Practices notes recent trends in FDI and examines the progress made in moving toward compilation of FDI statistics in accordance with standards established by the IMF and the Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD).

    This report also reviews international recommendations for the compilation, analysis, and dissemination of FDI data and notes discrepancies in global balance of payments statistics and in data on bilateral FDI stocks.

    In addition, the report provides information on selected countries’ current practices in measuring FDI—on the basis of results from a joint IMF/OECD survey that covered 30 OECD countries and 31 other IMF member countries, which was the subject of Foreign Direct Investment Statistics: How Countries Measure FDI, 2001, published by the IMF and OECD in 2003.

    Carol S. Carson


    Statistics Department

    International Monetary Fund



    Association of Southeast Asian Nations

    Benchmark Definition

    Benchmark Definition of Foreign Direct Investment, Third Edition (OECD, 1996)


    Balance of Payments Statistics Yearbook (IMF, various years)


    Balance of Payments Manual, fifth edition (IMF, 1993)


    European Central Bank


    Economic Commission for Latin America and the Caribbean (United Nations)


    Statistical Office of the European Communities


    Foreign direct investment


    Group of Seven major industrial countries


    International Financial Statistics (IMF, various years)


    International investment position


    International transactions reporting system


    Mergers and acquisitions


    Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development


    Survey of Implementation of Methodological Standards for Direct Investment


    Special purpose entity


    Special Data Dissemination Standard (IMF)


    Ultimate beneficial owner


    United Nations Conference on Trade and Development

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